At the hearing on October 9, 2018, the Supreme Court of India decided to liberalize import restrictions on carbon grade petroleum coke and calcined petroleum coke, while setting import quotas for carbon grade petroleum coke and calcined coke.
India's annual import quota is 500,000 tons of calcined coke and 1.4 million tons of carbon grade petroleum coke, but it is not allowed to be used as fuel. Petroleum coke is a sponge-like solid residue produced during the distillation of crude oil. Its calorific value is 1.5 times that of coal. It is usually used as fuel in electric power, glass, cement, and other industries. Because of the high calorific value of petroleum coke and the much cheaper price than coal, coupled with the loopholes in India's environmental protection tax, petroleum coke has become the most attractive raw material for Indian power stations and cement plants.
For India, petroleum coke is indeed cheap and easy to use, but it also costs a lot of use. India’s sulfur dioxide emissions have surpassed China in 2016 to become the world’s number one. At present, about 33 million people live in sulfur dioxide pollution. Area. To this end, the Modi government is determined to ban the use of petroleum coke as a fuel nationwide!
Petroleum coke market: The results of this hearing are also expected by all parties in the market. At present, Indian buyers are already in contact with Chinese petroleum coke and calcined coke suppliers. India’s two-month carbon-grade petroleum coke and calcined coke imports will soon recover.
China's petroleum coke price: For the current Chinese petroleum coke market, the impact is very limited. The export volume of petroleum coke from major manufacturers in the early stage was basically at the port level and did not enter the domestic market. The import restrictions on the release of petroleum coke in India are mainly to continue the previous export plan, which has little impact on the domestic petroleum coke market supply and demand.
Quota setting impact: The output converted to prebaked anodes is 165-1.7 million tons/year from the set limit. Compared with the demand for prebaked anodes in 2017, the demand for 1.7 million tons is basically the same.
For the Indian aluminum carbon market, the quota set this time basically meets the current demand. However, considering that India's electrolytic aluminum production has grown rapidly in recent years, the growth rate is basically 15%-20%, and the future demand is difficult to meet. There may be two situations in the future:
The first is that annual quotas are raised as demand for electrolytic aluminum increases;
The second is to still limit the current quota, or to increase the relative demand, and instead import more pre-baked anode products.
The second article above is relatively more in line with India's national environmental requirements. For the China Petroleum Coke Industry Chain, both of these situations can share the dividends generated by the development of the Indian electrolytic aluminum industry. Relatively speaking, if the second article is established, it will be more favorable to the domestic petroleum coke industry chain, which can boost the export of prebaked anodes, increase the utilization rate of prebaked anode capacity, and drive the demand for petroleum coke and calcined coke. Moreover, the recent domestic environmental protection policy is more rational, and it is also convenient for carbon enterprises to stabilize production.
180925 China's petroleum coke prices are stable and downward, the short-term market petroleum coke prices will continue to be low, and the low-sulfur calcined petroleum coke recarburizer market will slow down this week.
The three major groups of petroleum coke market:
In terms of Sinopec, the price of petroleum coke in its refinery is stable today. Only the prices of petroleum refineries in individual refineries are slightly adjusted. Among them, the price of Huadong Petrochemical is lowered by RMB 20/ton, and the petrochemical of South China is lowered by RMB 50/ton. Stable, the National Day is approaching and near the end of the month, and the recent coking price is still in a downward trend, so Sinopec's refineries are also mainly shipped, the price is stable.
In the case of PetroChina and CNOOC, the price of petroleum coke in the northeast region is stable today. Daqing and Fushun low-sulfur high-quality petroleum coke continue to insured, and prices are expected to fall sharply at the end of the month. The petroleum coke shipments in the northwest region performed well, and the downstream carbon companies received positive products. In the case of CNOOC, Zhoushan Petrochemical Coking Plant started construction today to implement the latest price. Binzhou Zhonghai Bitumen Coking started to be sold tomorrow, and the Shandong Haihua Group coking unit was postponed.
Refining petroleum coke:
Today is the first working day after the Mid-Autumn Festival, and the price of refining petroleum coke is still “falling down”. Today, Rizhao Yanqiao Port petrochemical coking unit has been out of focus, and shipped according to 3#A. The National Day holiday is approaching, the downstream carbon companies are still enthusiasm for receiving goods, and the refinery shipments are eager. Today, the price of sulfur coke continues to decline. It is expected that the short-term price will continue to stabilize.
Calcined coke market:
Today, the market for calcined coke is stable and the price has not been adjusted. The market price of low-sulfur calcined coke is relatively stable. The performance of low-sulfur calcination coke is general. Some enterprises have obvious inventory. The market price of downstream graphite electrode has risen slightly this week, but the raw materials of enterprises are still purchased on demand, and the environmental protection is further Affected the operating rate is limited. Low-sulfur calcination coke recarburizer market coking is slowing down this week. On the one hand, the downstream purchasing enthusiasm has declined after the price rise. On the other hand, this week, the Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau Co., Ltd. Petrochemical Branch has started a rotary kiln this week. The market share has shifted.
What is carbon additive? Carbon additive is a carbon or petroleum coke follow-up product of black or gray particles (or blocks) with high carbon content. The material is mainly coal and petroleum coke. The petroleum coke is divided into general calcined petroleum coke. (calcined coke or calcined coke) and graphitized petroleum coke. The carbon additive is used to reduce the oxygen content in the molten iron mainly during metal smelting and improve the mechanical properties of the casting. In the new synthetic cast iron smelting process, the amount of scrap steel used is greatly increased. By adding a carbon additive to adjust the carbon content of the molten iron, the production cost is greatly reduced while ensuring the quality of the molten iron.
Types of carbon additive
According to the existence form of carbon atoms, carbon additive can be divided into graphitized carbon additive and non-graphitized carbon additive. Graphitized carbon additive mainly includes graphitized petroleum coke and graphite electrode. Graphitized petroleum coke carbon additive is the most widely used in the foundry industry. The production process is to convert the raw material petroleum coke in a graphitization furnace through a high temperature of 2200-2600 °C, so that the carbon crystallization of the petroleum coke amorphous layer structure is transformed into The high-temperature heat treatment process of the three-dimensional ordered graphite crystal, that is, through the graphitization process, reaches the graphitization state. The non-graphitized carbon additive mainly includes: calcined petroleum coke, coal carbon additive, etc., calcined petroleum coke refers to petroleum coke heated at 1200-1500 ° C high temperature, the treatment temperature is low, and the crystal structure has not changed. Due to the high ash content and volatile matter, coal-based carbon additive is rarely used in electric arc furnace smelting. The indicators for measuring the quality of carbon additives are fixed carbon content, sulfur, volatile matter, ash, nitrogen content and water. After high temperature graphitization, the graphitized carbon additive has a much lower sulfur and nitrogen content than the non-graphitized carbon additive.
Carbon additive index: fixed carbon, ash, volatile matter
The fixed carbon of carbon additive is different from the carbon content. The fixed carbon value is calculated based on the moisture, volatile matter, ash and sulfur content of the sample, and the carbon content can be directly detected by the instrument. The fixed carbon content is high and the ash content is low, so the carbonization effect is better. The high ash content in the carbon additive generates a large amount of soot and slag during the smelting process, increases energy consumption, and increases the labor intensity of the slag.
Carbon additive index: sulfur
The sulfur content of ordinary calcined coke has a relatively high grade, generally less than 3% of sulfur to 0.1%, and the sulfur content of graphitized carbon additive is generally less than 0.05%. In ordinary cast iron, sulfur element has stable cementite and prevents the expansion of graphitization. In the production of ductile iron and vermicular graphite iron, a graphitized carbon additive with low sulfur content should be used. If the sulfur content is too high, the ball will be affected. The effect is to consume more spheroidizing agent and increase the production cost; the calcined petroleum coke carbon additive is used in the production of some gray iron castings because of the lower calcination temperature and higher sulfur content, generally less than 1%.
Carbon additive index: nitrogen content
Nitrogen content is an important indicator of the quality of carbon additive. In general, when the foundry purchases the carbon additive, the first is to pay attention to the price of the carbon additive; the second is the fixed carbon, sulfur, ash, volatile matter, and moisture content in the carbon additive, and less attention is paid to the nitrogen content. Ordinary calcined petroleum coke carbon additive, the calcination temperature is low, and the nitrogen and sulfur contents are high. When producing gray iron castings, the scrap steel itself will bring in a part of nitrogen. If the scrap is added in a large proportion, the amount of carbon additive will increase accordingly. If ordinary carbon calcined carbon additive with high nitrogen content is used, the molten iron is used in molten iron. The nitrogen content will increase significantly. Excessive dissolved nitrogen in the molten iron hinders graphitization, increases the stability of the carbide, promotes the formation of D-type graphite, improves the hardness, and deteriorates the processing properties of the casting.
For gray cast iron, the proper amount of nitrogen can shorten the length of the graphite sheet, increase the degree of bending, passivate the end, reduce the aspect ratio, stabilize the pearlite of the matrix, refine the grain structure and improve the tensile strength of the casting. And the role of hardness. According to the data, when the iron is N>0.012%, there is a possibility of nitrogen hole defects in the casting. Nitrogen pores are commonly found in the interior, surface or near surface of castings. They are round, rectangular and irregular in shape and are one of the common defects in casting production. The graphitized carbon additive is subjected to high-temperature desulfurization and denitrification treatment, and the content of nitrogen and sulfur is very low. The content of molten iron in the molten iron using graphitized carbon additive is generally low.
Factors affecting the absorption rate of carbon additive: The factors affecting the absorption rate of carbon additive are mainly the way of adding carbon additive, the chemical composition of molten iron, the temperature of molten iron, and the particle size of carbon additive.
The recarburizer is mainly a calcined coal recarburizer, a calcined coke recarburizer and a graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer.
(2018.09.21) This week, the domestic carbon refining agent market started to be stable, with good trading, and the prices of all grades were stable. Due to the influence of many factors such as environmental protection and trade wars, the downstream steel mills are affected by many factors such as environmental protection and trade warfare. In general, the shipment of recarburizers is limited. In addition, while the enterprises are in environmental protection, the production is basically stable and there are some stocks. The price factor is small. The overall performance of the post-calcined coke recarburizer market was stable. The company said that although the price is high, the supply and demand side is relatively balanced, and the company is steadily moving forward; the graphitization and recarburizer market has raised the price of individual enterprises, the market is well shipped, and the production situation of the enterprise is relatively high. stable.
General calcined coal recarburizer
This week, the mainstream price of China's general calcined recarburizer market remained stable. The enterprises in Ningxia, the main producing area, started low, and the market supply was relatively stable. The 60th anniversary of the establishment of the autonomous region was a celebration of local transportation. The production in the North China market is stable and the environmental protection pressure is still relatively large. Downstream steel mills are affected by environmental protection, limited start-ups, relatively stable demand, and bearish prices for recarburizers.
The calcined coal recarburizer has a close relationship with the steel market. This week, domestic steel prices have been adjusted and operated steadily. The misunderstanding of the environmental protection policy has been revised. The Sino-US trade war has intensified. The NDRC has indicated that it will increase the infrastructure to fill the shortcomings. Zhenzhen expects long-term demand. In the short-term, the downstream demand performance is acceptable, the inventory is low, and the cost end support is strong. It is expected that the short-term domestic steel market will be consolidating.
Calcined coke recarburizer
This week, the mainstream price of China's calcined coke market remained stable, and the company started to recover more than before, mainly supported by the price of raw material petroleum coke, and the cost pressure was reduced. However, in view of the high price in the downstream market, the price intention is weak, the production enterprises are still shipping, and the price of the carbonizer has not yet fully fluctuated. In terms of petroleum coke, the petroleum coke index of Sinopec's refinery is basically stable, the shipment performance is acceptable, and there is no new change in the device dynamics. As the Mid-Autumn Festival and the National Day are approaching, the refinery's willingness to trade will increase, while the downstream enterprises will purchase more on demand. It is expected that the price of petroleum coke will remain stable in the short term. In addition, due to the upcoming winter heating season in Xinjiang, the downstream enterprises will increase their enthusiasm for receiving goods. Therefore, the petroleum coke in the northwest region is relatively better.
Raw materials: medium and high sulfur calcined coke: This week, the domestic medium and high sulfur calcined coke market was stable, and the coke price was unchanged from last week. This week, environmental protection has not affected the production of calcined enterprises in various regions. It is understood that at present, most of the calcined coke production enterprises are mainly engaged in the implementation of pre-contracts. For the time being, most of them have no inventory pressure. Recently, the downstream part of the contract has begun to reduce prices, and the price of petroleum coke still has downside risks.
Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer
This week, the market price of China's graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer was stable, the price of raw material petroleum coke fell, and the cost pressure slowed down. Among them, the production of individual enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate fell. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the market will start construction in the second half of the year, and the output will be released. Graphitization and recarburizers are highly concentrated in Inner Mongolia. Enterprises in Jiangsu Province have normal production, good shipments and smooth exports.
Forecast of the market outlook: the price of raw material per-calcined coal will rebound in September due to the limited price of environmental protection acceptance enterprises, and the price of general calcined carbonizer will develop in a stable-up mode. Among them, the price of calcined coke and graphitized recarburizer is driven by cost, and the price may rise.
The recarburizer is a material used to increase the carbon content. The main component is carbon. There are many materials that can be used as a recarburizer. Commonly used are coke and anthracite, calcined petroleum coke, graphitized petroleum coke, and graphite (artificial graphite). , natural graphite) and mixtures made from such materials.
1. Coke and anthracite
Coke is a type of solid fuel. It is obtained by dry distillation of coal under high temperature conditions of about 1000 °C. The main component is fixed carbon, followed by ash, and contains less volatile matter and sulfur. Silver-gray, metallic luster. Hard and porous. In addition to a large amount of coke and iron non-ferrous metal smelting (metallurgical coke), coke is also used in foundry, chemical, calcium carbide and ferroalloys, and its quality requirements are different. For example, for casting coke, it is generally required to have large particle size, low porosity, high fixed carbon and low sulfur content; coking for chemical gasification is not strict with strength, but requires good reactivity, high ash melting point, and coke requirement for calcium carbide production. Try to increase the fixed carbon content.
Anthracite is a hard, dense and high-gloss coal mine. The main applications of anthracite lump coal are chemical fertilizer (nitrogen fertilizer, synthetic ammonia), ceramics, manufacturing forging and other industries; anthracite coal is mainly used in the metallurgical industry for blast furnace injection (blast furnace coal mainly includes anthracite, lean coal, lean coal and gas coal) ).
2. Calcined petroleum coke (calcined coke or calcined coke)
Calcined petroleum coke is a widely used recarburizer, which is obtained by calcining petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a by-product of refined crude oil. Residual oil and petroleum asphalt obtained by vacuum distillation or vacuum distillation can be used as raw materials for petroleum coke, and then coke is obtained to obtain raw petroleum coke. The annual production of American petroleum coke is about 30 million T. The raw petroleum coke has high impurity content and cannot be directly used as a recarburizer. It must be calcined first.
Raw petroleum coke has spongy, needle-like, granular and fluid states.
Sponge petroleum coke is produced by delayed coking. Because of its high sulfur and metal content, it is usually used as a fuel for calcination and as a raw material for calcined petroleum coke. The calcined plum cotton coke is mainly used in the aluminum industry and as a recarburizer.
The acicular petroleum coke is obtained by a delayed coking process using a raw material having a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons and a low impurity content. This coke has a needle-like structure that is easily broken, sometimes referred to as graphite coke, and is mainly used for the manufacture of graphite electrodes after calcination.
Granular petroleum coke is a hard granule. It is a raw material with a high content of sulfur and bitumen. It is produced by delayed coking and is mainly used as a fuel.
The fluid petroleum coke is obtained by continuous coking in a fluidized bed. It is in the form of fine particles, has no directional structure, high sulfur content and low volatile content.
The burning of petroleum coke is to remove sulfur, moisture, and volatiles. The raw petroleum coke is burned at 1200 ° C - 1350 t ° C to make it substantially pure carbon.
The largest user of smoked petroleum coke is the aluminum industry, 7 which is used to make anodes for the reduction of bauxite. The United States produces smoked petroleum coke, which accounts for about 6% of cast iron enhancers.
3. Graphitized petroleum coke
Graphitized petroleum coke refers to the high-temperature graphitization of petroleum coke. Under the high temperature of 3000 °C, the carbon molecular form in the petroleum coke is changed from an irregular arrangement to a hexagonal uniform arrangement. The agent is most easily decomposed in molten iron.
Characteristics of graphitized recarburizer
1) The low-sulfur graphitization recarburizer has a high decomposition rate and a high absorption rate, and can reach more than 90%.
2) High carbon, low sulfur, low nitrogen, and extremely harmful components.
3) Adding graphite nucleus to molten steel and molten iron, more uniform and finer distribution in molten steel and molten iron, so that the performance is more excellent and stable.
4. Graphite is an allotrope of elemental carbon. Each carbon atom is connected with three other carbon atoms (multiple hexagons arranged in a honeycomb shape) to form a covalent molecule by covalent bonding. . Graphite and carbon products have excellent performance, are increasingly used, and the production capacity and benefits are growing rapidly. There are more enterprises of graphite and carbon products above the scale of China, and the concentration is low. With the rapid development of China's metallurgy, chemical, machinery, medical equipment, nuclear power, automotive, aerospace and other industries, the demand for graphite and carbon products will continue to grow in these industries, and China's graphite and carbon products industry will maintain rapid growth. . Graphite is mainly divided into natural graphite and artificial graphite.
4.1. Natural graphite
Natural graphite can be divided into two types: flake graphite and microcrystalline graphite. Microcrystalline graphite has a high ash content and is generally not used as a carbon reinforcer for cast iron. There are many varieties of flake graphite. High-carbon flake graphite needs to be extracted by chemical methods, or heated to high temperature to decompose and volatilize the oxides. This flake graphite has low yield and high price, and generally does not act as a recarburizer; low carbon scales Graphite has a high ash content and should not be used as a recarburizer; it is mainly used as a carbon reinforcer for medium carbon graphite, but it is not used in large amounts.
4.2. Artificial graphite
Among the above various recarburizing agents, the best quality is artificial graphite. The main raw material for the manufacture of artificial graphite is powdered high-quality simmered petroleum coke, in which asphalt is added as a binder, and a small amount of other auxiliary materials are added. After the various raw materials are combined, they are press-formed and then treated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at 2500 to 3000 ° C to be graphitized. After high temperature treatment, the ash, sulfur and gas contents are greatly reduced. Due to the high price of artificial graphite products, the artificial graphite breakers commonly used in foundries are mostly cut when manufacturing graphite electrodes.
Recycled materials such as chips, used electrodes and graphite blocks to reduce production costs. In the smelting of ductile iron, in order to make the metallurgical quality of cast iron superior, the carbon-reducing agent should be the first choice of artificial graphite. For this reason, it is better to purchase scrap electrodes from nearby companies that use electric arc furnace steelmaking or electrolytic aluminum production enterprises, and crush them to the required particle size. .
180914 Because the price of petroleum coke in the early stage is in the rising stage, the price of petroleum coke is steadily fluctuating at this stage, but it is still in a high state. The calcined coke and prebaked anode market associated with this are also stable.
The three major groups of petroleum coke market:
In terms of Sinopec, today's refinery's petroleum coke market is trading smoothly, and there are no other changes in refinery indicators. The sulfur in the Yanjiang area is still trading well, and the Jingmen petrochemical coking unit is expected to start on September 16. The Shengli petrochemical coking unit in Shandong will be shut down for maintenance on September 15. The inventory of petroleum coke in downstream calcined coke enterprises is mostly in the middle and low position. Therefore, the demand for petroleum coke market is relatively good. It is predicted that the price of petroleum coke in Sinopec's refinery will be stable next week.
For PetroChina and CNOOC, the price of Dushanzi Petrochemical Petroleum Coke in the northwest region was raised by RMB 50/ton today. The oil coke shipments of the plant performed well and the downstream enterprises received positive products. The commencement date of the coking unit of Shandong Haihua Group has all been postponed. At present, the atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit of the plant has been started, and the specific time will continue to be tracked.
Refining petroleum coke: Today's refining petroleum coke trading tends to be stable, the number of refineries under the coke price is reduced, and some refineries with high pre-pay prices are replenishing today. Judging from the current shipment situation of refinery petroleum coke, it is expected that the coke price will enter a stable period in the next few days, and the overall rebound possibility is slim.
Calcined coke market: The calcined coke market has not fallen due to the downward adjustment of the coking price, and the market as a whole is mainly stable.
The mainstream price of China's prebaked anode market remained stable. The price of raw material petroleum coke is high, and the prices of individual enterprises are slightly lowered, and the cost of anode raw materials is high. The promotion of environmental inspection and the approach to the heating season, strict environmental inspections everywhere, no major changes in market start-up, sporadic enterprises stop production and rectification, coupled with the downstream electrolytic aluminum market price affected by raw materials, inventory, macroeconomic, environmental protection, etc., affecting market operating rates However, due to its winter stocking, it is good for the anode market.
The use of recarburizers, as the name implies, is to increase the content of carbon. Its main purpose is to increase the carbon content lost during the steelmaking process. If the carbon content does not meet the expected requirements during the steelmaking process, a certain proportion is required. The recarburizer enhances the carbon content of the molten steel and smelts the ideal steel.
There are many kinds of raw materials for recarburizers, and the production process is also different. There are wood carbons, coal carbons, petroleum cokes, etc., while petroleum cokes are divided into calcined coke recarburizers and graphitized recarburizers. The current mainstream recarburizer.
The calcined petroleum coke recarburizer refers to the calcination of the raw material petroleum coke, and the temperature is controlled at 1250～1380°C. During the calcination process, the structure and element composition of the petroleum coke undergo a series of deep changes, thereby improving their physics. Chemical properties.
Why is petroleum coke calcined?
The purpose of calcination:
1. Eliminate volatiles and moisture in petroleum coke raw materials. After calcination, the volatile matter is 0.5% or less, and the water content is 0.3% or less.
The calcined volatiles and moisture represent the degree of calcination, which does not require secondary shrinkage and crack formation during calcination.
2. Improve the density and mechanical strength of petroleum coke raw materials. The true density is 2.00 g/cm3 or more.
The true density of the calcined coke affects the true density of the final product, and the mechanical strength is low. The bulk density is low, which affects the molding. The main performance is difficult to form. The height of the green block does not meet the requirements within the required time, which affects the operation of the aluminum electrolytic cell.
3. Improve the electrical conductivity of petroleum coke raw materials.
The calcined coke specific resistance affects the final product resistivity.
4. Improve the chemical stability of petroleum coke raw materials. Improved oxidation resistance.
Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer is a process of treating petroleum coke into high temperature by graphite. This process is the process of energizing petroleum coke and then calcining at a high temperature of 3000 degrees, so that the carbon molecular form of petroleum coke is changed from irregular arrangement to hexagonal uniformity. In the way of arrangement, petroleum coke in this way can be better decomposed in molten iron to improve the effect of carbon absorption. Graphitized petroleum coke is the best refining agent for smelting. In the steelmaking industry, to produce good steel, there must be good raw materials, including good recarburizers, and graphitized petroleum coke is the best recarburizer. In the absence of graphitized petroleum coke, the graphite electrode has less scrap and higher price, which not only increases the cost of steelmaking, but also restricts the development of the steel industry. The appearance of graphitized petroleum coke breaks this bottleneck.
How much is a ton of recarburizer? The price of recarburizer depends on the specific indicators and particle size, such as the amount of fixed carbon, the amount of sulfur, the size of the grain, etc., in order to report the exact price, as well as the source of goods and freight, etc., Foshan Jitian Foundry Co., Ltd. mainly supplies calcined After the coke recarburizer and graphitization recarburizer, for Guangdong, Hunan, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Fujian and other provinces, customers are welcome to contact 2018 the most new carbon agent price, indicators and granularity!
Calcined coke recarburizer (petroleum coke): 2018.09.02 This week, the mainstream price of calcined coke recarburizer market remained stable, and individual companies offered slightly higher prices, and the market was stable. Raw materials: The price of domestic medium-high sulfur calcined coke has risen this week, with a concentration of 70-150 yuan/ton. The main reason for the increase in coke price is supply reduction and cost increase. In terms of raw materials, domestic petroleum coke prices are still rising mainly this week. The local refinery coke price has started to fall slightly on Wednesday. On the supply side, the supply of calcined coke in Shandong has decreased this week, mainly due to the impact of environmental supervision. Shandong this week The operating rate of Dongying calcined coke was significantly reduced. Most enterprises cut production by half and one was shut down. The production of calcined coke in other parts of Shandong has not been affected significantly. The fluctuations of calcined coke in Jiangsu and Hebei this week are not significant. Market outlook: It is expected that the market price of domestic medium and high sulfur calcined coke will be stabilized and stabilized next week.
Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer (petroleum coke): 2018.09.02 This week, the price of graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer was stable, the market spot was abundant, and the shipment situation was general. Among them, the production of individual enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate fell. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the anode market will be put into production in the second half of the year. It is expected that the output will be released one after another, affecting the overall supply of graphitized recarburizer market. The concentration of negative electrode enterprises in Inner Mongolia is high, and the graphitization and recarburizer processing enterprises have also been transferred, and the market concentration has increased. The Jiangsu area is operating normally and the shipments are good. The orders are mainly for the old customers. The anode materials processing enterprises in Qinghai, Lanzhou, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and other regions have higher activity and increased production.
At this stage, the recarburizing agent is mainly a calcined coal recarburizer (coal), a calcined coke recarburizer (petroleum coke) and a graphitized recarburizer (petroleum coke), and the mainstream is a post-calcined coke recarburizer, individual enterprises. If the quality requirements are good, the graphitized recarburizer will be chosen but the price will be high. This week, the mainstream price of China's carbon refining agent market was stable and the market was trading normally. At the same time, due to strict environmental inspections, the situation in various places is relatively severe.
Among them, the market price of general calcined coal recarburizer is stable, some manufacturers offer a small decrease, mainly due to downstream receiving; the post-calcining coke recarburizer is subject to rising price of raw petroleum coke, and the price of small enterprises is raised, but the mainstream price has not yet appeared; The market price of chemical refining agents is relatively stable. The start-up in Jiangsu has been slightly reduced, the shipments are normal, and the environmental protection pressure is very high. The orders are mainly for the old customers. The anode materials processing enterprises in Qinghai, Lanzhou, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia are more active.
Pu calcined coal recarburizer (coal quality): This week, the overall market price of China's general calcined coal recarburizer has been slightly reduced. Some regions have also increased due to supply and demand. The market is generally trading, and enterprises are mostly implementing old orders and maintaining Old customers are the mainstay. Enterprises in the main producing area of Ningxia are still in the process of rectification of dust-proof equipment, waiting for acceptance.
Calcined coke recarburizer (petroleum coke): This week, the mainstream price of calcined coke recarburizer market remained stable, with individual companies offering slightly higher prices and stable market transactions. Raw materials: The price of domestic medium-high sulfur calcined coke has risen this week, with a concentration of 70-150 yuan/ton. The main reason for the increase in coke price is supply reduction and cost increase. In terms of raw materials, domestic petroleum coke prices are still rising mainly this week. The local refinery coke price has started to fall slightly on Wednesday. On the supply side, the supply of calcined coke in Shandong has decreased this week, mainly due to the impact of environmental supervision. Shandong this week The operating rate of Dongying calcined coke was significantly reduced. Most enterprises cut production by half and one was shut down. The production of calcined coke in other parts of Shandong has not been affected significantly. The fluctuations of calcined coke in Jiangsu and Hebei this week are not significant. Market outlook: It is expected that the market price of domestic medium and high sulfur calcined coke will be stabilized and stabilized next week.
Relevant industry impact: This week, the domestic steel prices went down as a whole. As the snails fell sharply, the market wait-and-see atmosphere was heavier, and the fear of high sentiment spread. In addition, the pressure on merchants at the end of the month was highlighted, and the steel price was ushered back and forth. As the environmental protection policy continues to be high-pressure, the cost end is strongly supported, and the steel mills are still willing to pay a good price. It is expected that the short-term domestic steel prices will stabilize and adjust, and the downward trend will gradually narrow. For the refining agent market, the procurement enthusiasm is relatively slow, and the mainstream transaction price of the common specifications of the calcined coke recarburizer enterprises.
Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer (petroleum coke): This week, the price of graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer was stable, the market spot was abundant, and the shipment situation was general. Among them, the production of individual enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate fell. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the anode market will be put into production in the second half of the year. It is expected that the output will be released one after another, affecting the overall supply of graphitized recarburizer market. The concentration of negative electrode enterprises in Inner Mongolia is high, and the graphitization and recarburizer processing enterprises have also been transferred, and the market concentration has increased. The Jiangsu area is operating normally and the shipments are good. The orders are mainly for the old customers. The anode materials processing enterprises in Qinghai, Lanzhou, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and other regions have higher activity and increased production.
The market outlook: the price of the calcined coal recarburizer is stable or slightly decreased. The calcined coke refiner has risen slightly and stabilized. It is mainly affected by the price of raw petroleum coke, and the price of graphitized recarburizer remains stable.
Petroleum coke is a by-product of the delayed coking unit's feedstock oil cracking at high temperatures to produce light oil products. It is cheaper than coal and has a higher burning temperature. American petroleum coke has a high calorific value and attractive price, which is favored by cheap Indian factories. Indian cement companies use 75% of the country's petroleum coke.
At the hearing on July 30, 2018, the Supreme Court of India decided to release the restrictions on the use of petroleum coke in four industries, including cement, lime, calcium carbide, and petroleum coke vaporization. It also announced carbon-grade petroleum coke and calcination in October. The import restrictions on coke are subject to a hearing.
Beginning on August 7, India completely banned the import of carbon grade petroleum coke and calcined coke. Sponge coke is directly restricted by the import declaration of carbon manufacturers. On the other hand, the four industries with the above-mentioned open import restrictions can be imported normally, and there are those companies that can use the above four industries to import Indian carbon grade petroleum coke. However, under the situation of strict investigation of the start of the carbon plant, the import volume of carbon grade petroleum coke in India is bound to be greatly reduced.
India's electrolytic aluminum production in 2017 was about 3.4 million tons, and the demand for petroleum coke was about 1.8 million tons. The demand for carbon grade petroleum coke is basically dependent on imports. China exports carbon grade petroleum coke to India, reaching 540,000 tons in 2017. In 2017, India imported 1.99 million tons of petroleum coke and 1.88 million tons of carbon-grade imports, accounting for 18%. China Petroleum Coke accounts for 30% of India's carbon-grade petroleum coke imports. The most used is fuel grade petroleum coke, which accounts for 80% of imports. In terms of calcined coke, it exported 170,000 tons to India in 2017. At present, the calcined coke export to India may be interrupted or substantially reduced by October.
Fuel market: At this time, India has imposed restrictions on the release of high-sulfur fuel-grade petroleum coke imports, which will support international prices in the second half of the year. In the first half of 2018, China imported high-sulfur fuel coke, which increased by nearly 80% compared with last year. The coal market price has not been as good as expected since March. At the same time, the price of petroleum coke is high, the port price is upside down, and the spot inventory is high. China’s high sulfur coke imports are expected to decline in the second half of the year. In this case, India The high-sulfur fuel market is re-established, and international high-sulfur coke prices are expected to remain high. Under the circumstance of US tariffs, the expectation of China's fuel-grade petroleum coke imports will be strengthened in the second half of the year.
Carbon market: China's exports of carbon grade petroleum coke in India are reduced. If imports continue to be restricted, India may switch to importing pre-baked anode products. The prebaked anode is made of petroleum coke and pitch coke, and the coal bitumen is made of a binder, and is used as a pre-baked aluminum electrolytic cell as an anode material. This carbon block has been calcined and has a stable geometry, so it is also called prebaked anode carbon block, which is also known as carbon anode for aluminum electrolysis.
In 2018, China's domestic aluminum carbon market is tightly balanced. In the case of downstream production during the heating period, it may be relaxed. However, due to the tariffs imposed on the US coke, China's low-to-sulphur fuel market will require domestic sponges to be fixed. The amount of supplement, the price of domestic sponge coke will have a certain guarantee.
On the other hand, for India, the import of sponge coke and calcined coke (including from China) is the main source of carbon-grade petroleum coke, and Indian companies themselves will actively try to solve or circumvent the policy of restricting imports. Before October, it may cause a certain reduction in the import volume of petroleum coke imported from China, including other regions, but it will still find a way to solve the import problem. Exports to India are expected to reach 300,000 tons in the first half of the year, and actual arrivals of sponge coke and calcined coke may be significantly reduced between September and October.
According to the supply and demand of carbon for aluminum in India, the normal logic infers that India has almost no possibility of a total ban on imports. However, if the Indian High Law Hearing in October is still severely restricting imports, it may happen that India will switch to the import of prebaked anode products! The total demand for prebaked anodes in India is 1.7 million tons (2017). In recent years, the growth rate of electrolytic aluminum production in India is basically 15-20%.
As China's domestic coke consumption in the fuel market may increase, this year's market, even if the reduction of certain petroleum coke exports, will not have a big impact on the Chinese petroleum coke market price. On the contrary, in the unfavorable situation, the prebaked anode outlet may be boosted.
Due to the lack of good quality carbon grade petroleum coke in India, whether it is sponge coke, calcined coke or prebaked anode, it is still dependent on imports. For other countries' petroleum coke and carbon market, it is a problem of exporting raw materials or exporting finished products. . The existing capacity and new capacity of China's prebaked anodes are huge, which is convenient for expanding exports and seizing the carbon market for aluminum in India, which may also drive the demand for the carbon industry chain for aluminum.
Foshan Yoshida Casting Materials Co., Ltd. has long-term supply of various particle size indicators of recarburizers, calcined coke recarburizers and graphitized recarburizers. There are various indicators, and the particle size can be selected according to customer needs.
The calcined coke recarburizer is obtained by calcining petroleum coke, also called calcined coke, calcined petroleum coke. The main component is carbon. Its role is to increase carbon as its name suggests. However, the quality of different recarburizers is not the same. The higher the carbon content, the lower the basic impurities (basic impurities refer to ash, volatiles, moisture, etc.). Another one is the sulfur and nitrogen content in the composition. The role of sulfur is basically clear. The inclusion of a certain amount of sulfur in the cast iron can better improve the physical properties of the casting. In recent years, the nitrogen content has also been extensively studied. The nitrogen content is too high, nitrogen holes are generated, the nitrogen content is too low, the hardness of the castings is not high, and the ferrite is much.
The role of the calcined coke recarburizer is for casting cast iron and cast steel. Castings have a requirement for carbon, so the recarburizer is used to increase the carbon content of the molten iron. The common charge in smelting is pig iron, scrap steel, and recycled material. The carbon content of pig iron is high, but the purchase price is higher than that of scrap steel. Therefore, increasing the amount of scrap steel, adding high-quality recarburizer, reducing the amount of pig iron added, saving production costs and meeting the production needs. The recarburizer is slightly different for each batch. You have to be a specific percentage, which is not realistic. Other ingredients are ash, moisture, sulfur, phosphorus and the like.
Graphite recarburizer has high degree of graphitization, low sulfur, low nitrogen, less harmful impurities, very fast dissolution, no absorption, no residue, no floating, no residue, less added; low sulfur and low nitrogen, very graphitized High, very suitable for all (or most) use of shavings, cold-filled materials, briquettes, wire, particle steel as raw materials, smelting vermicular cast iron, ductile iron, gray cast iron. We will provide targeted recarburizers according to the characteristics of different customers' process castings, and it is not expensive to ensure that the products are easy to use!
Scope of application: It is used for carbonization of cast iron and cast iron in various electric furnaces. It is especially suitable for the ball mill cast iron industry with strict requirements on product quality and strict sulfur control. Compared with other types of recarburizers, it has an absolute price advantage. The intermediate frequency furnace of half a ton to 12 tons, the furnace temperature is controlled at about 1500 degrees. The absorption rate can reach up to 93%.
Particle size: 0-2mm, 1-2mm, 0-3mm, 1-3mm, 1-5mm...etc. (can be selected according to customer's needs)
Name: Owen Zhang
Mobile： 0086-182 1805 1155
Wechat: 182 1805 1155
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Add: Foshan, Guangdong, China