The recarburizers based on petroleum coke mainly include carbon 98 calcined petroleum coke recarburizer and carbon 99.5 graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer. The price difference between the two recarburizers is relatively large, and some customers need a compromise choice. There is a semi-graphite recarburizer. Different recarburizers vary in price depending on the carbon and sulfur content. Customers in need can contact the latest recarburizer prices.
Foshan Jitian Foundry Materials Co., Ltd. also supplies the above three kinds of recarburizers. The specific indicators are as follows:
Carbon 98 calcined petroleum coke recarburizer:
Fixed carbon ≥98 Indirect carbonization method Q/HSLHHZSH 1001-2017
True density / g / cm3 ≥ 2.03 YS / T 587.9
Powder resistivity / uΩ. m ≤600 YS/T 587.6
Ash/%(m/m) ≤0.28 YS/T 587.1
Sulfur content /% (m / m) ≤ 0.7 GB / T 214
Moisture (customer requirements) /% (m / m) ≤ 0.5 YS / T 587.2
Particle size Remarks: 0-1mm 0-2mm 1-3mm 1-5mm 8-30mm (produced according to customer requirements)
Carbon 99.5 Graphitized Petcoke Recarburizer:
Moisture (Mad) /% ≤0.5 GB/T211-2007
Ash (A)/% ≤0.8 GB/T212-2008
Volatile matter (V) /% ≤ 0.8 GB/T212-2008
Fixed carbon (FC) /% ≥98.5 Indirect carbonization method GB/T212-2008
Nitrogen (N) /% ≤0.03 Oxygen and nitrogen analyzer GB/T214-2007
Sulfur (SI) /% ≤0.05 sulfur analyzer GB/T30733-2014
Particle size Remarks: 0-2mm 1-5mm 8-30mm (produced according to customer requirements)
Carbonized semi-graphitized Petcoke carbonizer:
Moisture (Mad) /% ≤0.5 GB/T211-2007
Ash (A)/% ≤0.8 GB/T212-2008
Volatile matter (V) /% ≤ 0.8 GB/T212-2008
Fixed carbon (FC) /% ≥ 98 indirect carbonization method GB/T212-2008
Nitrogen (N) /% ≤ 0.2 Oxygen and nitrogen analyzer GB/T214-2007
Sulfur (SI) /% ≤0.3 sulfur analyzer GB/T30733-2014
Particle size Remarks: 0-1mm 0-2mm 0-3mm 0.5-2mm 2-8mm 8-30mm (produced according to customer requirements)
The predecessor of Foshan Chanshan Foundry Co., Ltd. is Foshan Foundry with a history of nearly 50 years. Up to now, our company has a complete range of casting processes including resin sand, dry sand, tidal sand, synthetic sand, water glass sand and gypsum sand, and a group of more advanced casting production and testing equipment and a The experienced team of design, management and production is very adaptable. The product range includes: HT150～HT300 gray cast iron parts; QT400～QT700 ductile iron parts; special alloy castings; copper and aluminum alloy castings and various handicraft castings with different materials; BS standard series ductile iron pipe fittings; Rod type elastic gate valve; pneumatic rotary riveting machine series; various light and heavy security anti-theft manhole covers. The products are mainly exported and exported to Europe, America, Australia, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Southeast Asia. On the basis of new planning and expansion of production sites, and the introduction of a large number of advanced equipment, the annual production capacity of various grades of gray cast iron parts, ductile iron parts, copper and aluminum castings exceeds 10,000 tons.
Foshan Jinda Technology Co., Ltd., formerly known as Foshan Nanhai Jinda Precision Casting Co., Ltd., founded in 1995, is located in the Pearl River Delta, with convenient communication and transportation. The company is specialized in stainless steel, alloy steel and carbon steel. The main investment in precision casting and machining as one of the enterprises. The introduction of a full range of automated and semi-automated production equipment and the entire line of silica sol process production, to meet higher dimensional accuracy and surface quality requirements. We have a complete production line, including mold making, investment casting, machining and product assembly to meet the requirements of customer finished products. The products are mainly exported to Europe, America, Japan, Singapore, etc., and have established long-term friendly cooperative relations with customers.
Foshan Nanhai District Dali Xiebian Yongsheng Hardware Foundry is located in Dali Town, Nanhai, Foshan, the hometown of non-ferrous metals in China. It started in 1986 and started from the traditional hand-made copper processing. It has been more than 20 years old. The company has been engaged in the foundry of copper and aluminum for many years. It is a professional design and manufacturing enterprise for gravity casting and copper-aluminum casting. Our factory has many years of experience in aluminum die-casting and gravity casting. It is equipped with advanced casting, heat treatment and machining equipment. It adopts advanced technology and complete testing methods. It has a high-quality technical and management team and a perfect quality assurance system. . Mainly used in aluminum alloy sand casting, gravity casting, pressure casting, low pressure casting, precision casting and other casting processes, products related to mechanical parts, construction hardware, auto parts, pneumatic components, press parts, household items, public space leisure facilities and other related fields . Our factory can also produce and supply castings or finished products of various materials and models according to customer requirements, and produce heat-resistant alloy steel and wear-resistant alloy steel of various material specifications, high temperature, high pressure, high chromium high nickel alloy steel, special Steel casting and other products. Other customized products include: high temperature resistant castings, centrifugal casting tubes, precision castings, industrial furnaces, heat treatment furnace castings, heat resistant castings, wear resistant steel castings, stainless steel fittings, hardware tools, auto parts, marine and building structural parts, etc. .
Low-sulfur calcined petroleum coke: 20181026 This week, the market price of low-sulfur calcined coke continued to push up. The inventory of various production enterprises was mostly in the middle and low position. Secondly, the operating rate of downstream graphite electrode enterprises increased, and the purchase volume of low-sulfur calcined coke increased slightly.
The low-sulfur calcination of raw materials in Liaoning has improved this week. The inventory of the company has decreased in the early period. The downstream electrode enterprises have started to purchase actively. The market resources of needle-shaped coke have decreased and the price has pushed up and the Fushun calcined coke market has been traded. This week, the market for low-sulphur screening with calcined coke was stable, and the downstream market was on-demand, with less inventory pressure. This week, the operating rate of Huizhou Petrochemical is still not 50%, the inventory is low, and the downstream receiving is positive.
Medium and high sulfur calcined coke: 20181026 This week, the market of high sulfur calcined coke was stable, and the market price of calcined coke in the market with a sulfur content of 1.5% was increased recently. In terms of production, this week's calcined coke enterprises started to fluctuate less, most of them are under normal production. Shandong Rotary Kiln has been ignited on October 22, and it is expected to be produced in early November. 250,000 tons/year of calcination is currently on the desulfurization equipment. It is expected to be ignited during the year; it is expected that the calcined coke will be out of focus in mid-November; the current calcined coke has been produced normally, with a sulfur content of 3.0% and sales within 2.5%.
As of 20181026, the domestic Shandong market sulfur 3.5% trace elements do not require calcination coke mainstream transaction price acceptance ** yuan / ton; sulfur 3.0% trace elements no requirement for calcined coke mainstream acceptance transactions ** yuan / ton; only require vanadium 400, other The micro-unrequired medium sulfur calcined coke factory mainstream transaction acceptance price ** yuan / ton; all trace elements are required within 300, sulfur content within 2.0% of the calcined coke factory price ** yuan / ton. Export high-end (strict elements of trace elements) indicators of calcined coke prices need to negotiate with the company.
The market outlook: medium and high sulfur calcined coke, it is understood that the recent demand for calcined coke is good, the calcined coke within the vanadium 400 due to rising raw material prices, profit margins, but some customers responded to recent shipments in general, so it is predicted that the price of domestic calcined coke will be next week Still based on stability. The market demand for low-sulfur calcined coke is still good. At present, most enterprises maintain low stocks. It is expected that the price of calcined petroleum coke will continue to strengthen in the short term.
20181019 This week, the mainstream price of China's Recarburizer market is stable, the low-grade Recarburizer market is generally trading, the company's inventory is high, and the medium and high Recarburizer market is better. The heating season is just around the corner, the downstream steel mill's production restriction policy is clear, the company's operating rate is low, and the receiving sentiment is relatively dull. The Rebondurizer market price is generally stable and the possibility of deposit and loss is high. The prices of raw materials in the medium and high-grade Recarburizer market were generally raised after the holiday, and the cost pressure of production enterprises increased. However, due to the limited acceptance of the downstream market, the company's quotation has not been raised.
At present, the main materials of Recarburizer are coal and petroleum coke. The petroleum coke is divided into ordinary calcined Recarburizer and graphitized Recarburizer because of the degree of calcination. After years of tempering in the market, the petroleum coke Recarburizer has gradually replaced the market position of coal-based Recarburizer, and the shipment volume is relatively high.
This week, the mainstream price of China's general calcined Recarburizer market remained stable, and the overall market shipments were generally due to the general consumption of downstream steel mills, and the demand was relatively light. Most of the recalcinated Recarburizer manufacturers are electric calcined anthracite enterprises, self-produced screening, and the environmental protection facilities of the local enterprises in the main producing area are undergoing the inspection and acceptance of environmental protection facilities. If the enterprises fail to meet the standards or restrict production, the market starts will be limited. The production of enterprises in North China is normal, but the reaction starts low, the market is generally trading, and the enterprises have inventory.
Downstream: China's construction steel prices are trading strongly this week. Recently, in the environmentally-friendly production and the leading regions, the stock market digested and enlarged, coupled with the decrease in the shipments of the leading steel mills, the stronger willingness to price, and the support of the construction steel market continued to rise. It is understood that the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development said that all localities should take effective measures to speed up the progress of construction, increase the construction of supporting infrastructure for sheds, and the terminal demand is still acceptable. However, as the price gradually increases, the terminal transaction will gradually decrease, and the market risk preference will be lower. The high price of the willingness to accept is relatively limited, which is not conducive to the sharp rise in prices. Coupled with the recent snail and steel billet red and green intertwined, resulting in a turbulent mentality in the building materials market, traders are cautious, and the atmosphere is strong. Market outlook: It is expected that the short-term building materials market will fluctuate and strengthen, with a range of 50 yuan/ton.
Calcined Petroleum Coke recarburizer:
This week, the price of China's calcined coke Recarburizer is stable, the raw material price is high, and the production cost of the enterprise is high. However, in view of the environmental impact of the downstream enterprises, the low-level operation, the demand for Recarburizer is relatively stable, the market is generally trading, the late heating season is coming, the calcined coke Prices may fluctuate due to limited production, etc., affecting Recarburizer shipments, or will benefit other quality Recarburizer.
Medium and high sulfur calcined coke: This week, the medium and high sulfur calcined coke market was generally trading, the shipment was stable, the market was slightly weak, and the price of the coke was not adjusted. In terms of production, the production load of Zhaoxing carbon is increasing, and individual enterprises in Shandong Guangrao are not expected to reduce production. It is understood that the impact of this winter's limited production policy on calcined coke enterprises will be less than expected. A new carbon-fired enterprise in Shandong is expected to ignite four new calciners at the end of this month, and the monthly output is expected to increase by about 20,000 tons. There is no inventory backlog, and there is no pressure on the trading market of calcined coke. However, at the same time, after the production load of the enterprise is increased, coupled with the recent poor performance of the aluminum market, the price of domestic medium and high sulfur calcined coke at the end of the month is still at a downward risk, and the estimated range is about 50 yuan/ton. .
Graphitized petroleum coke Recarburizer:
This week, the price of China's graphitized petroleum coke Recarburizer is stable. The price of raw material petroleum coke is stable and the price is high. The pressure on the production cost of Recarburizer is increasing. Among them, the production of individual enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate fell. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the market will start construction in the second half of the year, and the output will be released. Enterprises in Jiangsu Province have normal production, good shipments and smooth exports.
Late prediction: The general market for recarburization of Recarburizer is currently trading, and the stock of enterprises is higher, but the price of raw materials for electric calcination may be lower due to limited production, which stimulates the price of Recarburizer; the price of calcined coke and graphitized Recarburizer is driven by cost. The pressure is increasing, and the price push is stronger.
At the hearing on October 9, 2018, the Supreme Court of India decided to liberalize import restrictions on carbon grade petroleum coke and calcined petroleum coke, while setting import quotas for carbon grade petroleum coke and calcined coke.
India's annual import quota is 500,000 tons of calcined coke and 1.4 million tons of carbon grade petroleum coke, but it is not allowed to be used as fuel. Petroleum coke is a sponge-like solid residue produced during the distillation of crude oil. Its calorific value is 1.5 times that of coal. It is usually used as fuel in electric power, glass, cement, and other industries. Because of the high calorific value of petroleum coke and the much cheaper price than coal, coupled with the loopholes in India's environmental protection tax, petroleum coke has become the most attractive raw material for Indian power stations and cement plants.
For India, petroleum coke is indeed cheap and easy to use, but it also costs a lot of use. India’s sulfur dioxide emissions have surpassed China in 2016 to become the world’s number one. At present, about 33 million people live in sulfur dioxide pollution. Area. To this end, the Modi government is determined to ban the use of petroleum coke as a fuel nationwide!
Petroleum coke market: The results of this hearing are also expected by all parties in the market. At present, Indian buyers are already in contact with Chinese petroleum coke and calcined coke suppliers. India’s two-month carbon-grade petroleum coke and calcined coke imports will soon recover.
China's petroleum coke price: For the current Chinese petroleum coke market, the impact is very limited. The export volume of petroleum coke from major manufacturers in the early stage was basically at the port level and did not enter the domestic market. The import restrictions on the release of petroleum coke in India are mainly to continue the previous export plan, which has little impact on the domestic petroleum coke market supply and demand.
Quota setting impact: The output converted to prebaked anodes is 165-1.7 million tons/year from the set limit. Compared with the demand for prebaked anodes in 2017, the demand for 1.7 million tons is basically the same.
For the Indian aluminum carbon market, the quota set this time basically meets the current demand. However, considering that India's electrolytic aluminum production has grown rapidly in recent years, the growth rate is basically 15%-20%, and the future demand is difficult to meet. There may be two situations in the future:
The first is that annual quotas are raised as demand for electrolytic aluminum increases;
The second is to still limit the current quota, or to increase the relative demand, and instead import more pre-baked anode products.
The second article above is relatively more in line with India's national environmental requirements. For the China Petroleum Coke Industry Chain, both of these situations can share the dividends generated by the development of the Indian electrolytic aluminum industry. Relatively speaking, if the second article is established, it will be more favorable to the domestic petroleum coke industry chain, which can boost the export of prebaked anodes, increase the utilization rate of prebaked anode capacity, and drive the demand for petroleum coke and calcined coke. Moreover, the recent domestic environmental protection policy is more rational, and it is also convenient for carbon enterprises to stabilize production.
Monday (October 8th) today is the first working day after the National Day. According to the understanding of the price of petroleum coke during the National Day, the price remains mainly stable, and the price after the holiday has been adjusted. The price of calcined petroleum coke is slightly raised, and the coke is burnt. The price of recarburizer is temporarily unchanged.
The three major groups of petroleum coke market:
Sinopec, during the National Day, Sinopec's Tahe and Maoming Petrochemical prices have been adjusted, and today, Tahe coke prices continue to increase, it is reported that Tahe petroleum coke cumulative increase of 60 yuan / ton, Maoming petrochemical coke price before the holiday cut significantly 120 yuan / Tons, mainly due to the high price in the previous period, coupled with the price adjustment of the National Day holiday, the current oil coke shipments of the factory are low. The price of petroleum coke in Yanshan Petrochemical Company of North China was lowered by RMB 60/ton today. The factory shipped poorly during the festival and there were fewer transport vehicles. Luoyang Petrochemical's shipment is still acceptable, and the price of Dongming is raised to support its shipment. The price of Tianjin Petrochemical Railway Transportation was raised by RMB 50/ton. The quality of petroleum coke in Anqing Petrochemical was slightly lower due to higher prices in the previous period. The Sinochem Quanzhou coking unit has been shut down during the National Day and there is currently no inventory in the plant.
In the case of PetroChina and CNOOC, Daqing and Fushun Petrochemical in Northeast China began to sell their petroleum coke in October, and the shipment is relatively stable. Liaoyang Petrochemical's price is lowered by 50 yuan/ton today, and the coking unit of the plant is expected to be shut down for one year from mid-October. The commencement of the Liaohe petrochemical coking unit has been postponed and it is expected that products will be available in the middle. The petrochemical coking unit in the northwest region started construction at the end of September. At present, it has been out of focus, and the price is raised by 50 yuan/ton. Wu Petrochemical and Dushanzi Petrochemical petroleum coke shipped well, among which the petrochemical index of Wujiang Petrochemical continued to improve in the near future. The sulfur content was all within 1.0%, and the price of Yumen Petrochemical Petroleum Coke was raised by RMB 50/ton from 10.1.
Refining petroleum coke:
As the first working day after the National Day, the price of refinery petroleum coke has risen in an all-round way, with a concentration of 30-130 yuan/ton. Before the holiday, due to the high cost performance of the refining petroleum coke, the refineries have signed a large number of contracts. At present, most of the refineries have no inventory and the shipments are smooth. In terms of refinery dynamics, Hengbang Petrochemical Co., Ltd. resumed production and still produces projectile coke; Zhenghe Petrochemical Coking Unit was shut down for maintenance on September 30, and petroleum coke has no inventory; Longhai Petrochemical and Qirun Chemical Coking have not yet started.
Calcined petroleum coke recarburizer market:
Today, the market for calcined coke recarburizers is stable, and corporate prices have not been adjusted. During the National Day of PetroChina Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau Co., Ltd., the two rotary kiln have been started normally. However, since the refinery coking unit has not been out of focus, the plant is not yet fully loaded. At present, the plant is burning coke recarburizer. The price is maintained before the National Day, and the shipment is acceptable.
180925 China's petroleum coke prices are stable and downward, the short-term market petroleum coke prices will continue to be low, and the low-sulfur calcined petroleum coke recarburizer market will slow down this week.
The three major groups of petroleum coke market:
In terms of Sinopec, the price of petroleum coke in its refinery is stable today. Only the prices of petroleum refineries in individual refineries are slightly adjusted. Among them, the price of Huadong Petrochemical is lowered by RMB 20/ton, and the petrochemical of South China is lowered by RMB 50/ton. Stable, the National Day is approaching and near the end of the month, and the recent coking price is still in a downward trend, so Sinopec's refineries are also mainly shipped, the price is stable.
In the case of PetroChina and CNOOC, the price of petroleum coke in the northeast region is stable today. Daqing and Fushun low-sulfur high-quality petroleum coke continue to insured, and prices are expected to fall sharply at the end of the month. The petroleum coke shipments in the northwest region performed well, and the downstream carbon companies received positive products. In the case of CNOOC, Zhoushan Petrochemical Coking Plant started construction today to implement the latest price. Binzhou Zhonghai Bitumen Coking started to be sold tomorrow, and the Shandong Haihua Group coking unit was postponed.
Refining petroleum coke:
Today is the first working day after the Mid-Autumn Festival, and the price of refining petroleum coke is still “falling down”. Today, Rizhao Yanqiao Port petrochemical coking unit has been out of focus, and shipped according to 3#A. The National Day holiday is approaching, the downstream carbon companies are still enthusiasm for receiving goods, and the refinery shipments are eager. Today, the price of sulfur coke continues to decline. It is expected that the short-term price will continue to stabilize.
Calcined coke market:
Today, the market for calcined coke is stable and the price has not been adjusted. The market price of low-sulfur calcined coke is relatively stable. The performance of low-sulfur calcination coke is general. Some enterprises have obvious inventory. The market price of downstream graphite electrode has risen slightly this week, but the raw materials of enterprises are still purchased on demand, and the environmental protection is further Affected the operating rate is limited. Low-sulfur calcination coke recarburizer market coking is slowing down this week. On the one hand, the downstream purchasing enthusiasm has declined after the price rise. On the other hand, this week, the Liaohe Petroleum Exploration Bureau Co., Ltd. Petrochemical Branch has started a rotary kiln this week. The market share has shifted.
What is carbon additive? Carbon additive is a carbon or petroleum coke follow-up product of black or gray particles (or blocks) with high carbon content. The material is mainly coal and petroleum coke. The petroleum coke is divided into general calcined petroleum coke. (calcined coke or calcined coke) and graphitized petroleum coke. The carbon additive is used to reduce the oxygen content in the molten iron mainly during metal smelting and improve the mechanical properties of the casting. In the new synthetic cast iron smelting process, the amount of scrap steel used is greatly increased. By adding a carbon additive to adjust the carbon content of the molten iron, the production cost is greatly reduced while ensuring the quality of the molten iron.
Types of carbon additive
According to the existence form of carbon atoms, carbon additive can be divided into graphitized carbon additive and non-graphitized carbon additive. Graphitized carbon additive mainly includes graphitized petroleum coke and graphite electrode. Graphitized petroleum coke carbon additive is the most widely used in the foundry industry. The production process is to convert the raw material petroleum coke in a graphitization furnace through a high temperature of 2200-2600 °C, so that the carbon crystallization of the petroleum coke amorphous layer structure is transformed into The high-temperature heat treatment process of the three-dimensional ordered graphite crystal, that is, through the graphitization process, reaches the graphitization state. The non-graphitized carbon additive mainly includes: calcined petroleum coke, coal carbon additive, etc., calcined petroleum coke refers to petroleum coke heated at 1200-1500 ° C high temperature, the treatment temperature is low, and the crystal structure has not changed. Due to the high ash content and volatile matter, coal-based carbon additive is rarely used in electric arc furnace smelting. The indicators for measuring the quality of carbon additives are fixed carbon content, sulfur, volatile matter, ash, nitrogen content and water. After high temperature graphitization, the graphitized carbon additive has a much lower sulfur and nitrogen content than the non-graphitized carbon additive.
Carbon additive index: fixed carbon, ash, volatile matter
The fixed carbon of carbon additive is different from the carbon content. The fixed carbon value is calculated based on the moisture, volatile matter, ash and sulfur content of the sample, and the carbon content can be directly detected by the instrument. The fixed carbon content is high and the ash content is low, so the carbonization effect is better. The high ash content in the carbon additive generates a large amount of soot and slag during the smelting process, increases energy consumption, and increases the labor intensity of the slag.
Carbon additive index: sulfur
The sulfur content of ordinary calcined coke has a relatively high grade, generally less than 3% of sulfur to 0.1%, and the sulfur content of graphitized carbon additive is generally less than 0.05%. In ordinary cast iron, sulfur element has stable cementite and prevents the expansion of graphitization. In the production of ductile iron and vermicular graphite iron, a graphitized carbon additive with low sulfur content should be used. If the sulfur content is too high, the ball will be affected. The effect is to consume more spheroidizing agent and increase the production cost; the calcined petroleum coke carbon additive is used in the production of some gray iron castings because of the lower calcination temperature and higher sulfur content, generally less than 1%.
Carbon additive index: nitrogen content
Nitrogen content is an important indicator of the quality of carbon additive. In general, when the foundry purchases the carbon additive, the first is to pay attention to the price of the carbon additive; the second is the fixed carbon, sulfur, ash, volatile matter, and moisture content in the carbon additive, and less attention is paid to the nitrogen content. Ordinary calcined petroleum coke carbon additive, the calcination temperature is low, and the nitrogen and sulfur contents are high. When producing gray iron castings, the scrap steel itself will bring in a part of nitrogen. If the scrap is added in a large proportion, the amount of carbon additive will increase accordingly. If ordinary carbon calcined carbon additive with high nitrogen content is used, the molten iron is used in molten iron. The nitrogen content will increase significantly. Excessive dissolved nitrogen in the molten iron hinders graphitization, increases the stability of the carbide, promotes the formation of D-type graphite, improves the hardness, and deteriorates the processing properties of the casting.
For gray cast iron, the proper amount of nitrogen can shorten the length of the graphite sheet, increase the degree of bending, passivate the end, reduce the aspect ratio, stabilize the pearlite of the matrix, refine the grain structure and improve the tensile strength of the casting. And the role of hardness. According to the data, when the iron is N>0.012%, there is a possibility of nitrogen hole defects in the casting. Nitrogen pores are commonly found in the interior, surface or near surface of castings. They are round, rectangular and irregular in shape and are one of the common defects in casting production. The graphitized carbon additive is subjected to high-temperature desulfurization and denitrification treatment, and the content of nitrogen and sulfur is very low. The content of molten iron in the molten iron using graphitized carbon additive is generally low.
Factors affecting the absorption rate of carbon additive: The factors affecting the absorption rate of carbon additive are mainly the way of adding carbon additive, the chemical composition of molten iron, the temperature of molten iron, and the particle size of carbon additive.
In the process of iron and steel smelting, if the carbon content in the molten iron is not improved well, it will affect the quality of the steel and increase the cost of smelting and casting. In order to ensure the quality of steel casting, the quality of smelting can be improved by increasing the amount of smelted pig iron, but the raw iron of pig iron is relatively high. When using a recarburizer, it is not necessary to put too much pig iron. It is possible to increase the carbon content in the molten iron.
At present, there are many materials for cast iron recarburizers on the market. In general, coal quality recarburizers, petroleum coke recarburizers, calcined petroleum cokes, graphitized petroleum coke recarburizers and artificial graphite can be used as cast iron smelting. Recarburizer used. Although these products can be used as recarburizers, you must choose the right recarburizer when you buy them. If the quality of the products to be cast is high, you need to choose artificial graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer.
If the quality of the smelting metal is not high, you can choose a lower cost recarburizer. For example, in converter smelting, when high carbon steel is used, you can use petroleum coke with a lot of impurities as a recarburizer. However, the requirements for the recarburizer for the top-blown converter steelmaking are higher than the carbon of the fixed furnace recarburizer. The ash, volatiles, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen and other impurities are also required to be high in content, and are required to be dry, clean, and granular. Moderately, it is necessary to choose a calcined coke recarburizer and a graphitized recarburizer.
Among them, the most used mainstream carbonizers specifications are: fixed carbon C ≥ 98%, volatile matter ≤ 1.0%, sulfur content ≤ 1%, moisture ≤ 0.5%, particle size is more than 1-5mm, this recarburizer The indicator shows the calcined petroleum coke recarburizer, which is calcined petroleum coke. In the past, in the domestic smelting industry, relatively low-end non-graphitizing recarburizers were generally used. With the improvement of product quality and upgrading, more and more enterprises using graphitized petroleum coke in China will increase carbonization of graphitized petroleum coke. The indicators of the agent are: fixed carbon C ≥ 98.5%, volatile matter ≤ 0.5%, sulfur content ≤ 0.1%, moisture ≤ 0.5%, particle size between 0-5mm.
Different types of recarburizers are used differently. In the process of selecting a recarburizing agent for steel making, the particle size should be moderate, the particle size is too fine to be easily burned, and when it is too coarse to be added, it floats on the surface of the molten steel and is not easily absorbed by the molten steel. With the development of the market, the quality requirements of steelmaking refining agents are getting higher and higher, especially the conversion from coal quality carbonizers to calcined petroleum coke recarburizers, or graphitized petroleum coke recarburizers. .
The recarburizer is a material used to increase the carbon content. The main component is carbon. There are many materials that can be used as a recarburizer. Commonly used are coke and anthracite, calcined petroleum coke, graphitized petroleum coke, and graphite (artificial graphite). , natural graphite) and mixtures made from such materials.
1. Coke and anthracite
Coke is a type of solid fuel. It is obtained by dry distillation of coal under high temperature conditions of about 1000 °C. The main component is fixed carbon, followed by ash, and contains less volatile matter and sulfur. Silver-gray, metallic luster. Hard and porous. In addition to a large amount of coke and iron non-ferrous metal smelting (metallurgical coke), coke is also used in foundry, chemical, calcium carbide and ferroalloys, and its quality requirements are different. For example, for casting coke, it is generally required to have large particle size, low porosity, high fixed carbon and low sulfur content; coking for chemical gasification is not strict with strength, but requires good reactivity, high ash melting point, and coke requirement for calcium carbide production. Try to increase the fixed carbon content.
Anthracite is a hard, dense and high-gloss coal mine. The main applications of anthracite lump coal are chemical fertilizer (nitrogen fertilizer, synthetic ammonia), ceramics, manufacturing forging and other industries; anthracite coal is mainly used in the metallurgical industry for blast furnace injection (blast furnace coal mainly includes anthracite, lean coal, lean coal and gas coal) ).
2. Calcined petroleum coke (calcined coke or calcined coke)
Calcined petroleum coke is a widely used recarburizer, which is obtained by calcining petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a by-product of refined crude oil. Residual oil and petroleum asphalt obtained by vacuum distillation or vacuum distillation can be used as raw materials for petroleum coke, and then coke is obtained to obtain raw petroleum coke. The annual production of American petroleum coke is about 30 million T. The raw petroleum coke has high impurity content and cannot be directly used as a recarburizer. It must be calcined first.
Raw petroleum coke has spongy, needle-like, granular and fluid states.
Sponge petroleum coke is produced by delayed coking. Because of its high sulfur and metal content, it is usually used as a fuel for calcination and as a raw material for calcined petroleum coke. The calcined plum cotton coke is mainly used in the aluminum industry and as a recarburizer.
The acicular petroleum coke is obtained by a delayed coking process using a raw material having a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons and a low impurity content. This coke has a needle-like structure that is easily broken, sometimes referred to as graphite coke, and is mainly used for the manufacture of graphite electrodes after calcination.
Granular petroleum coke is a hard granule. It is a raw material with a high content of sulfur and bitumen. It is produced by delayed coking and is mainly used as a fuel.
The fluid petroleum coke is obtained by continuous coking in a fluidized bed. It is in the form of fine particles, has no directional structure, high sulfur content and low volatile content.
The burning of petroleum coke is to remove sulfur, moisture, and volatiles. The raw petroleum coke is burned at 1200 ° C - 1350 t ° C to make it substantially pure carbon.
The largest user of smoked petroleum coke is the aluminum industry, 7 which is used to make anodes for the reduction of bauxite. The United States produces smoked petroleum coke, which accounts for about 6% of cast iron enhancers.
3. Graphitized petroleum coke
Graphitized petroleum coke refers to the high-temperature graphitization of petroleum coke. Under the high temperature of 3000 °C, the carbon molecular form in the petroleum coke is changed from an irregular arrangement to a hexagonal uniform arrangement. The agent is most easily decomposed in molten iron.
Characteristics of graphitized recarburizer
1) The low-sulfur graphitization recarburizer has a high decomposition rate and a high absorption rate, and can reach more than 90%.
2) High carbon, low sulfur, low nitrogen, and extremely harmful components.
3) Adding graphite nucleus to molten steel and molten iron, more uniform and finer distribution in molten steel and molten iron, so that the performance is more excellent and stable.
4. Graphite is an allotrope of elemental carbon. Each carbon atom is connected with three other carbon atoms (multiple hexagons arranged in a honeycomb shape) to form a covalent molecule by covalent bonding. . Graphite and carbon products have excellent performance, are increasingly used, and the production capacity and benefits are growing rapidly. There are more enterprises of graphite and carbon products above the scale of China, and the concentration is low. With the rapid development of China's metallurgy, chemical, machinery, medical equipment, nuclear power, automotive, aerospace and other industries, the demand for graphite and carbon products will continue to grow in these industries, and China's graphite and carbon products industry will maintain rapid growth. . Graphite is mainly divided into natural graphite and artificial graphite.
4.1. Natural graphite
Natural graphite can be divided into two types: flake graphite and microcrystalline graphite. Microcrystalline graphite has a high ash content and is generally not used as a carbon reinforcer for cast iron. There are many varieties of flake graphite. High-carbon flake graphite needs to be extracted by chemical methods, or heated to high temperature to decompose and volatilize the oxides. This flake graphite has low yield and high price, and generally does not act as a recarburizer; low carbon scales Graphite has a high ash content and should not be used as a recarburizer; it is mainly used as a carbon reinforcer for medium carbon graphite, but it is not used in large amounts.
4.2. Artificial graphite
Among the above various recarburizing agents, the best quality is artificial graphite. The main raw material for the manufacture of artificial graphite is powdered high-quality simmered petroleum coke, in which asphalt is added as a binder, and a small amount of other auxiliary materials are added. After the various raw materials are combined, they are press-formed and then treated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at 2500 to 3000 ° C to be graphitized. After high temperature treatment, the ash, sulfur and gas contents are greatly reduced. Due to the high price of artificial graphite products, the artificial graphite breakers commonly used in foundries are mostly cut when manufacturing graphite electrodes.
Recycled materials such as chips, used electrodes and graphite blocks to reduce production costs. In the smelting of ductile iron, in order to make the metallurgical quality of cast iron superior, the carbon-reducing agent should be the first choice of artificial graphite. For this reason, it is better to purchase scrap electrodes from nearby companies that use electric arc furnace steelmaking or electrolytic aluminum production enterprises, and crush them to the required particle size. .
180909 This week, China's recarburizer market started to work stably and trading was good. Among them, the market price of recalcurizer (common calcined coal) is lower. The main reason is that the downstream steel mills are affected by many factors such as environmental protection and trade warfare. In general, recarburizer shipments are limited, and the company is basically stable in environmental protection. Most of the inventory, the market price will decline. The market price of calcined coke recarburizer (calcined petroleum coke) was stable overall. The company said that although the price is high, the supply and demand side is relatively balanced, and the market is stable; the graphitized rebcarburizer (graphitized petroleum coke) market is raised by individual companies, and the market is out. The goods are in good condition and the production situation of the company is relatively stable.
Calcined coal recarburizer:
This week, the mainstream price of China's general calcined coal rebcarurizer market was lowered. The production in the main producing area of Ningxia is stable overall, affected by the rain, and the transportation is slightly limited. The enterprises are mostly in the process of rectification and maintenance, preparing for the acceptance at the end of September. Due to the downstream receiving, the enterprises are more or less in stock, the market In general, the overall transaction is relatively light, and the mainstream market price is down. The overall market production in North China is relatively stable, but environmental protection pressure is still not small. The overall performance of the market is generally high, mainly depending on the poor start of the downstream steel mills.
This week, the mainstream price of the calcined coke recarburizer market remained stable and the market was stable. In the northeast and north China, the production of enterprises is stable, the price of calcined coke is rising, and the cost pressure of enterprises is increasing. However, in view of the high price in the downstream market, the price intention is weak, the production enterprises are still shipping, and the mainstream prices of the market have not yet fully fluctuated.
Graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer:
This week, the market price of China's graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer was stable, and the company's price intention was strong. The main reason was the increase in cost. The crude oil price of raw materials rose in the mainstream, and the high-end operation, individual companies raised product prices. Among them, the production of individual enterprises in Henan and Xinjiang was suspended due to environmental protection, and the operating rate fell. In addition, the graphitization enterprises of anode materials in the market will start construction in the second half of the year, and the output will be released. Graphitized rebcarurizer is highly concentrated in the Inner Mongolia region. Enterprises in Jiangsu Province have normal production, good shipments and smooth exports.
Recarburizer is mainly used in steel smelting process. Due to improper ingredients or improper loading and excessive decarburization, the carbon content in steel or iron sometimes fails to meet the expected requirements. At this time, carbon is added to steel or molten iron. The relationship between recarburizer and steel is also very close. Domestic steel prices have stabilized this week. Recently, the market turnover is weak, but the recent environmental protection inspection work in Shandong is in full swing. The inventory of various steel mills has decreased, and the market price support is strong. Steel mills have obvious willingness to price, and the market price on the weekend has also risen slightly, but the mainstream temporary stability has been comprehensively considered. It is expected that the short building materials market will be operated in a multi-country volatility with a range of 50 yuan/ton.
Forecast of the market outlook: the raw material price of raw calcined coal will rebound in September due to the limited price of environmental protection acceptance enterprises, and the price of the crude calcined recarburizer will develop in a stable-up mode. The price of the calcined recarburizer and the graphitized petroleum coke recarburizer is driven by cost, and the price is stable or slightly upward.
Name: Owen Zhang
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